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Muhamad Fawad Photo By Muhamad Fawad on June 02, 2014 DEFINITION: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome is defined by the development of specified opportunistic infections and tumors. As HIV infection progresses the viral load rises, CD4 count falls and mediated immunity with consequent susceptibility to opportunistic infection and clinical features as a result of immune suppression. DISCOVERY: The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was first recognized in 1981, although the earliest documented case of HIV infection has been traced to a blood sample from the Democratic Republic of Congo in 1959. AidsAids

Aids

CAUSE: AIDS is caused by RETEROVIRUS-HIV (Human immuno deficiency virus). There are two types, HIV-1 and HIV-2. GLOBAL EPIDEMIC AND REGIONAL PATTERNS: In 1984, more than 20 million people have died due to HIV. At least 33 million people worldwide are living with HIV infection. In 2011, it was estimated there were 34.2 million people living with HIV/AIDS, 2.5 million new infections and 1.7 million deaths. Globally, new infections have declined by 20% over the last 10 years. Expanding access to combination antivirus therapy (ART) has resulted in a 24% decline in global AIDS related deaths since the peak in 2005.But still HIV is an important cause of death globally and has caused over 30 million deaths since the epidemic started. HIV has had a devastating effect in sub Saharan Africa, particularly in Southern African where average life expectancy of the general population fell to below 40 years. Here the regional distribution is summarized as fellows,
  • North America 1.4 million
  • Caribbean 230, 000
  • Latin America 1.4 million
  • Western and Central Europe 860, 000
  • Middle East and North Africa 330, 000
  • ub Saharan 23.5 million
  • Eastern Europe and Central Asia 1.5 million
  • South and South-east Asia 4.2 million
  • East Asia 830, 000
  • Oceania 53, 000
INFECTION: VIROLOGY: In HIV, the infectious agent that cause AIDS, the glycoprotein's of the envelop enables the virus to binds to specific receptors on the surface of certain white blood cells, although there are two RNA molecules. They are identical, not complementary strands. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a disorder which impairs the body's lymphocytic T4 immune system in humans, in that the virus replicates within T4 cells or helper cells. Thus these cells can no longer help or induce other T cell, called killer cells, to fight invaders. The body's immune system breaks down, leaving the patient exposed to a variety of diseases. It is important to realize, however, that infection with the virus (HIV) does not necessarily result in AIDS. As with other diseases, some people remain symptom less and are therefore termed carriers. RISK FACTORS OF TRANSMISSION: HIV present in blood, semen and other body fluids such as breast milk and saliva. Exposure to infected fluid leads to a risk of acquiring infection, which is dependent on the integrity of the exposed site, type and volume of body fluids, and viral load. Here the ways of transmission, 1. SEXUAL TRANSMISSION;
  • STIS, especially genital ulcers
  • Cervical ectopy
  • Rectal or vaginal lacerations
  • Menstruation
  • Uncircumcised male partner
  • Depot intramuscular progesterone contraceptives use
2. INJECTION DRUG USE TRANSMISSION;
  • Sharing equipments like unsterilized injections
  • Concomitant cocaine use
  • Linked commercial sex
  • Intravenous use
  • Incarceration
3. OCCOUPATIONAL TRANSMISSION;
  • Deep injury or wound contact
  • Needle was in blood vessel
  • Visible blood on device
  • Unsterilized needles
4. BLOOD TRANSFUSION WITHOUT SCREENING OF BLOOD 5. FROM MOTHER TO CHILD; Infected mother deliver to child during feeding 6. VERTICAL TRANSMISSION;
  • Older gestational age
  • Lower birth weight
  • Prolonged rupture of membrane
  • Fetal trauma
  • No paripartum prophylaxis
  • Vaginal delivery
  • Mastitis
NATURAL HISTORY: PRIMARY INFECTION/ SEROCONVERSION Primary infection is symptomatic in 70-80% of cases and usually occurs 2-4 weeks after exposure (incubation period) The major clinical features are:
  • Fever
  • Erythematous maculopapular rash mainly over trunk
  • Fatigue
  • pharyngitis with cervical lymphadentitis
  • headache, arthralgia and myalgia
  • mucosal ulceration
  • myelitis, aseptic meningitis, polyneuritis
  • opportunistic infection like canididiasis, pneumonia
Symptomatic recovery occurs in 1-2 weeks but may take up to 10 weeks. ASYMPTOMATIC INFECTION (CLINCAL LATENCY):
  • Persist generalized lymphadenopathy
MIDDLE SYMPTOMATIC DISEASE:
  • Chronic weight loss
  • Fever
  • Diarrhea
  • Oral or vaginal candidiasis
  • Hairy leukoplakia
  • Recurrent herpes zoster
  • Sever pelvic inflammatory disease
  • Cervical dysplasia and
  • ITP
OTHER CLINCAL SYNDROME:
  • Itchy skin
  • A Pathos ulcers
  • Cryptosporidiosis
  • CMV rentitis
  • Acute uveitis
  • Thrombocytopenia
  • Nephritic syndrome
  • Histoplasmosis
  • Aspergillus infection
  • Cardiomyopathy
  • Cardic failure
  • Toxoplasmosis
  • Kaposi's sarcoma
  • Molluscum contagiosum
  • Tuberculosis
  • Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
INVESTIGATIONS: HIV ANTIBODY: confirmation of HIV is by ELISA antibody test. PCR for HIV RNA. Viral load (HIV RNA): by PCR or b DNA or NASBA method. Absolute CD4 count. TREATMENT AND MANGEMENT: 1. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
  • Zidovudine (AZT)
  • Didanosine
  • Lamivudine
2. Non-nucleosidereverse transcriptase inhibitors
  • Efavirenz
  • Nevirapine
3. Protease inhibitors
  • Saquinavir
  • Indinavir
These drugs do not cure the syndrome completely but may reduce and minimize the complications of syndrome. AidsAids

Aids

Muhamad Fawad Photo Although it is an adverse and Horrible Disease but preventions exist. So, everyone should take care of themselves and avoid and protect themselves from the risk factors of this syndrome as rightly said: "PREVENTION IS BETTER THAN CURE." Come and help the world to minimize this syndrome. Name Fawad: Student of Superior University Lahore Pakistan. googletag.cmd.push(function() { googletag.display("div-21857-40"); });

Original article published on SooperArticles.com

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